- Ethics Track European Congress of Psychology Istanbul 2011



11th European Congress of Psychology

Istanbul, Turkey

July 4-8, 2011

Ethics Track: Psychology Ethics around the World: Challenges and Opportunities

Organizer: Assoc.Prof.Yesim Korkut

The "ethics track" has been first tried during ECP Istanbul 2011 and the aim was  to provide a unique experience to participants to follow various presentations on ethics in a frame that will take place each day in the same place and time. This frame could enable attendees to follow specific ethics-related discussions that were  presented in a well-organized and coherent fashion. The main goals were to:

  • Examine the development and revision of ethics codes in various nations and cultures;
  • compare and contrast models of ethical decision-making;
  • explore how ethics is taught in psychology training programs throughout the world;
  • consider ethical aspects of specific practice areas such as supervision tele-health, neuroethics;
  • address the responsible conduct of research, and in particular the role of review boards, for psychological research conducted by psychologists from other countries;
  • examine special ethical challenges and opportunities of indigenous peoples;
  • explore the ethical aspects of psychologists responding to humanitarian disasters in all areas of the world; and
  • examine region-specific issues that arise in diverse areas such as North America, the EFPA countries and the Balkans, South and Central America, and Asia and Australia.

This track was designed so that both participants and attendees will gain a greater appreciation for the ethical practice of psychology in all nations and cultures.

There were one Keynote Lecture, 5 Symposiums, 2 Roundtables and one workshop on ethics, as can be seen below.


Ethics track , ECP 2011, İstanbul (4-8 th July)

Name of the convenor & presenters

Type of Presentation


Merry Bullock

(S. Behnke, G. Lindsay, C. Sinclair, M. Leach)

Symposium 1


Convener:  Janel Gauthier

(J. Gauthier, J. Pettifor, A.Allan, Y. Korkut )

Discussant Bersoff

Symposium 2



Convener: Jean Pettifor

  1. Allan

S. Cooper

A. Farah


Round Table 1


Convenor: Saths Cooper

S. Behnke

Nair, E

Saths Cooper

J. Gauthier

Symposium 3



Convenor: Yesim Korkut

(P. Nederlandt

A. Wainwright

V. Clauido

C. Wider

Henk Geertsema

Wolf Dietrich Zuzan)

Symposium 4


Jancis Long

( N. Sveaas



F. Garoff

J. Ghannam

Symposium 5


Jean Pettifor & Carol Fallender


“Being an ethical and culturally competent supervisor when cultures differ”

G. Gridley

Roundtable 2

Personal, professional and political: Applying human rights principles to research and practice in psychology



















Here are the main symposiums and the summaries of the participants:

ETHICS TRACK SYMPOSIUM 4: EFPA SCE SYMPOSİUM : “Communicating about Ethics ”"

Moderator: Yesim Korkut

1-The history of the metacode and publications of the EFPA's Standing Committee on Ethics

Pierre Nederlandt

In 1988, the EFPA General Assembly decided to appoint a task force to « explore the possibility of, and to work towards the realization of, common European ethical codes for professional psychologists ».  In 1990 the task force decided to try to develop a meta-code that is a code taking the basic principles in common to all codes and those wich should be included. The meta-code would act as a guide to all national associations when they develop their own codes. The meta-code was accepted in 1995 and revised in 2005.

Additionally, the Standing Committee on Ethics presented recommendations for teaching ethics, guidelines  for procedures in case of complaints about unethical conduct, information about psychological services provided via internet ... Four members published in 2008 « Ethics for the European Psychologists ».

2-Henk (H.) Geertsema, healthcare psychologist,

Free University Medical Center, Amsterdam, The Netherland

Dealing with the media; a guideline for ethical behaviour of psychologists in public appearance

Objective. To develop guidelines for psychologist who are appearing in public media, like television, radio or newspapers,  to behave in a ethically sound way.

Method. Guidelines were developed based on a questionnaire and expert meetings with the members of the standing Committee on Ethics (SCE) of the EFPA. The questionnaire helped to get a clear picture of the problems. The expert meetings were used to arrive at clear formulations of the guideline. 

Results. Seven recommendations for psychologists and three (implementation-) recommendations for the EFPA member associations are formulated.

Conclusion.  We expect that after implementation the use of the recommendations will result in an improvement of the ethical aspects of media behaviour of psychologists.

3-Sexual involvement with therapists 

Dr. Karin Kalteis, Vienna


Sexual desire of therapists to clients is randomly addressed in supervision but sexual abuse of clients by psychologists or psychotherapists is in fact not seldom .  Pope, K.S., Tabachnik, B.G. and Keith-Spiegel, P. (1987) yet have reported that 87% of therapists felt on one point of their career sexually attracted by a client (female and male as well). That does not mean, that abuse has happend, but it says, that therapists should  reflect routine on that theme . That should be a standard task for every supervision because abuse happens in all kinds you might think. And afterwards you see, that in case of sexual abuse there has been supervison, but sexuality has not been addressed. Kenneth S. Pope (1994) estimated sexual abuse of clients by therapists  between 7 and 12 %. To choose only therapists of the same gender as  the client does not solve the problem because also homo-erotic abuse happens and if a therapist  implements it he often will be a reoffender.

4-Tony Wainwright

Title: Would you kill the big guy? - Teaching ethics to psychologists  in the UK

Ethics in public life is a topic of major importance. For psychologists, being clear about the possible origins of unethical  behaviour can be useful in whatever branch of the profession they work, but particularly so in those where unethical practice can result in direct harm.

Approaches to teaching ethics to psychologists in the UK will be reviewed covering  undergraduate and postgraduate courses, and also training for professional qualifications. Survey data will be presented to indicate the range of approaches to delivering the training and the topic areas covered. 

It is suggested that recent research on the psychology of moral behaviour could usefully be included in all courses, as well as discussions of ethical reasoning and professional Codes of Practice.

5-Teaching ethics for psychologists: Current status and future challenges".

Victor Cláudio – ISPA-I.U. /UIPES – Lisbon, Portugal

We begin by discussing the new challenges to teaching ethics in psychology courses with the changes resulting from the implementation of the Bologna Accord.
In this approach we focus on two levels: The Teaching of Ethics in the 1st Cycle of Studies, which aims to prepare students for the 2nd cycle; Teaching Ethics in the 2nd cycle that must be addressed ethical issues specific to each area of specialty

We discuss the experience of creating a discipline of Psychology and Ethics, in Portugal, which was the first in the European context.

 We discusses ethical aspects arising in the process of relationship, the specific area of activity of psychologists regardless of specialty, are highlighted focusing on their  particular characteristics.

We focus on the importance of preparing psychologists for the ethical challenges facing the intervention with cultural diversity and sexual orientation.
We discussed the importance of ethical intervention of psychologists in the current economic crisis and values.




Convener:  Janel Gauthier, Ph.D., Laval University, Canada

Discussant: Donald Bersoff, Ph.D., Drexel University, USA


Advances in technology have made it progressively easier for human societies across the globe to establish closer contacts. We now live in a globalizing world where people, ideas and cultures move ever more freely and swiftly across national borders. As a result, societies are confronted with cross-cultural issues that are ever more challenging, particularly with respect to values across a range of cultures. The globalization of psychology is challenging psychologists to re-think the relationship between foundational moral principles and specific codes of conduct.  This symposium will explore current initiatives to assist instructors in psychology to bridge apparent cultural differences in ethical thinking and behaviour. Today the well-being of humankind may depend on the promotion of common values and goals more than on rule-compliance. This presentation will include practical examples from different countries on the dilemmas in teaching ethics in a globalizing world.


Internationalizing the Professional Ethics Curriculum

Janel Gauthier, Ph.D., Laval University, Canada

Mark M. Leach, Ph.D., University of Louisville, USA


Many advanced courses are taught worldwide in psychological ethics but few include a global perspective.  With interest in psychological ethics growing internationally it becomes essential to include international information into ethics coursework, to prepare the next generation of psychologists to think globally and ethically. The purpose of this presentation is to : (a) briefly summarize national, regional, and international ethics documents, (b) present recent international ethics research that can be applied to courses, and (c) introduce means to incorporate international ethics perspectives into coursework for psychologists, regardless of geographic region. We will suggest means to internationalize the ethics curriculum content, include specific teaching techniques and strategies, and suggest assignments students can engage in to incorporate deeper ethical meaning into their education. Finally, research ideas will be presented to advance future teaching of international ethics. It is hoped that all future ethics courses will include a global perspective.

PRESENTATION No 2 (please note that both authors will speak)

Ethical Dilemmas, Cultural Differences, and Globalization:

Teaching Vignettes and Other Exercises

Jean Pettifor, Ph.D. University of Calgary, Canada

Carol Falender, Ph.D., University of California at Los Angeles, USA

Teaching ethics is an essential to transmitting ethical practice to future generations of professionals. With globalization it is critical to evaluate how well North American and European codes of ethics are relevant as models internationally, and particularly the prescribed rules of conduct and the aspirational moral framework. Rules of conduct tend to emphasize enforcement, risk management, protection against disciplinary action at the expense, and exclusion, of personal morality, multicultural relativity and client benefit. The purpose of this presentation is to provide a moral framework for ethics education that incorporates a global-universal perspective based on collaboration, respect, and mindfulness of client values, culture and past and present contextual factors that determine who we are today. Examples will be used. Through analysis of a complex ethics vignette, critical training and educational processes will be elucidated. We conclude that ethics codes need revision in the interests of multicultural and international practice.



Issues in Teaching Ethics in Australia

Alfred Allan, Ph.D., Edith Cowan University, Australia

Psychology in Australia in most respects follow the model used in other English-speaking countries.  The teaching and learning of ethical decision making consequently follows the model used in those countries and is based on the Code of Ethics of the Australian Psychological Society which incorporates the principles of the Universal Declaration of Ethical Principles for Psychologists.  In this paper I will give a general overview of the teaching of ethics in the country and specifically two factors that impact on the teaching of ethics in Australia.  These are firstly, the continued existence of an apprenticeship model of training alongside the six-year University training model and secondly, the accommodation of indigenous Aboriginal people within the traditional system of psychology.


Diverse and New Ways of Teaching Ethics

Yeşim Korkut, Ph.D., Bahcesehir University, Turkey


Though teaching and training in ethics is an important component of psychology curriculum, it is not an easy task at all. Usually there is a theoretical emphasis which most of the time would not bring desired change in awareness and understanding of ethical issues. It is clear that new ways of learning should be the searched and tried.

In this presentation a review of various contexts in which ethics can be taught   and diverse ways of teaching ethics will be discussed.


Symposium.  Advancing Psychology Ethics: roles and problems for international cooperation

Sponsored by the International Network of Psychologists for Social Responsibility (INPsySR)

Convener:  Jancis Long Ph.D.



Jancis Long Ph.D , Psychologists for Social Responsibility  (US), INPsySR

Nora Sveaass dr. Psycol. U. of Oslo, International Society for Health and Human Rights

Virpi Lahteenmaki,  Finnish PsySR. (Finland)

Mohammed Brighieth Ph.D. Ramallah (Palestine)

Ferdinand Garoff  Ph.D. U. of Helsinki (Finland), President, INPsySR

 Jess Ghannam  Ph.D. UC San Francisco,  Convener, HPAT (US)


Symposium Abstract

 Psychologists frequently deal with human suffering caused by cruel beliefs, or the high social stresses of violence, injustice and poverty.   Sometimes their workplaces call on them to lend psychological expertise to cruelty.  Mostly they have little chance of affecting the social sources of suffering, and when working internationally may be thought insensitive to try. Though Human Rights and Ethics codes abound, training in most countries does not sufficiently attend to how they may be realized, what problems may be encountered, or where fruitful pathways to alleviate suffering exist. This Symposium presents three ethics-involved conflicts for psychologists: work where cultural values or mission goals conflict with professional training (Paper 1); involvement of psychologists with torture and abuse of captive populations (Paper 2); work where suffering is part of entrenched unjust social situations (Paper 3). Experiences from three international coalitions, attempting to reduce and teach about such problems are presented (Paper 4).

Paper 1

When Ethics Clash: psychology across cultures and systems.

Jancis Long Ph.D.  Psychologists for Social Responsibility (US)


 Despite moving declarations of “Universal” Human Rights and Ethical Principles for Psychologists, a major feature of working with diversity  is the problems raised by different ideas of good and bad. Meeting diverse values about gender, family roles, childrearing, sexual orientation, community responsibilities and punishment can put the values of cultural sensitivity into a clash with human or family rights.r Inequalties in international work can intensify ethical conflicts.  Military settings put “Do No Harm” into conflict with strong but different ethics of the armed services.  In the wake of violence and oppression, whether within families or communities, legitimate anger and distrust can conflict with attempts to achieve social peace and justice.  This paper will present the ethical issues involved in a few such cases, and suggest how international collaborations can work to help psychology educators worldwide learn from each other the likely ethical problems for which their students should prepare.

Paper 2

The Obligation to Prevent and Redress Torture – challenges for psychologists

Nora Sveaass dr.psychol. University of Oslo

Violations of basic human rights, including torture, take place in settings where psychologists are affiliated. Where persons are deprived of their liberty, in prisons, detention centers or psychiatric institutions the risk for abuse, degrading treatment and torture is present. The obligation of states that have ratified the conventions against torture is to take all possible measures to prevent torture, and  when it happens, to ensure that investigation takes place and the responsible held accountable. Finally there is the obligation to provide redress to victims of torture, including rehabilitation. Frequently these obligations are not met. Psychologists have important roles working for prevention, reporting and redress.  Reflections, experiences and challenges related to this will be discussed. Emphasis will be given to the need for stronger awareness both on what it means to comply with conventions and how psychologists can be actively involved in prevention and prohibition of torture.

Paper 3

Culture and Trauma in therapeutic work with children: Experiences from play therapy groups in Palestine

Virpi Lahteenmaki,  Finnish Psychologists for Social Responsibility

Mohammed Brighieth Ph.D. Assistant Professor, Ramallah, Palestine

Play therapy is a group method for children who have been traumatized. A model developed in Europe, adjusted for Palestinian culture, has been practiced there in schools since 2006 in collaboration with Finnish and Palestinian psychologists. Small children’s groups,  children who have trauma experiences, and a supporting peer group have used the method.  These groups have the following objectives: a) To promote healthy self-esteem and good relationships b) Address children’s needs for challenge, stimulation, structure, and nurture.  c) Provide children with positive models, and new ways of being with others and d) Help children with problem solving and dealing with disappointments.   Emotions and behaviours observed among the children have raised questions about their relationship to Palestinian culture, quality of family and community conditions of life,  childrens’ trauma experiences or a combination of these. Analyses will be presented, and discussed in the context of understanding trauma, appropriate responses and international cooperation.

Paper 4

 International Cooperation to promote human rights psychology

Ferdinand Garoff Ph.D, U. of Helsinki, President INPsySR.   Jess Ghannam, Ph.D. U. CSF, Nora Sveaass ISHHR,  Jancis Long, INPsySR and HPAT.

 The International Network of Psychologists for Social Responsibility is a network of organizations focused on the psychology of peacemaking and social justice.  By promoting worldwide communication, mutual learning and support INPsySR aims to unite these efforts to improve human rights within countries and share lessons learned across borders.   The International Society for Health and Human Rights shares knowledge, skills, experiences and concerns regarding the inpact of persecution, torture and other human rights violations.   It maintains an archive of resources for all working in this field.   Health Professionals Against Torture is a new coalition of organizations designed specifically to raise consciousness about the ethical anomalies of health professionals’ involvement in torture, develop an international network of reporting, resistance and local strategies, and to bring these principles into psychology training. The presenters will indicate achievements and problems of these cooperations,  summarize the Symposium and provide information on ways to participate.


Ethics in Action: Documents, Decision Making and Regulation

This symposium will explore the development of ethical thought and action in psychological decision making and research from several overlapping perspectives. Collectively, the papers will describe the development of ethics codes and explore common values and trends; will illustrate principles of ethical decision making; and will explore how ethical issues in research across national borders are reflected in regulatory processes. Vignettes will be used to illustrate the presenters' points throughout the presentation.

Moderator: Merry Bullock, American Psychological Association


Stephen Behnke, American Psychological Association: The Context and Definition of Ethical Decision Making

Geoffrey Lindsay, University of Warwick: Models of Ethical Decision Making for Psychologists

Carole Sinclair: The History of Ethical Principles and Ethical Codes for Psychologists.

Mark M. Leach (University of Louisville): Ethical Standards across Countries: Commonalities and Cultural Considerations

Discussant: : Mihail Kritikos, Ethics Review Sector, DG Research-European Commission


Stephen Behnke, American Psychological Association: The Context and Definition of Ethical Decision Making
Abstract (Behnke): This paper will offer a definition of ethics and address how this definition locates ethical decision making in the context of the closely related but distinct concepts of clinical, legal and risk management decision making.

Geoff Lindsay, University of Warwick: Models of Ethical Decision Making for Psychologists
Abstract (Lindsay): This paper will compare and contrast several models of ethical decision making to examine how psychologists define and distinguish ethics from other professional concerns, and to describe models for how psychologists approach and resolve ethical dilemmas.

Carole Sinclair: The History of Ethical Principles and Ethical Codes for Psychologists.
Abstract (Sinclair) This presentation will provide an outline of the approaches used by professions, from the time of the ancient world to the present, to articulate their ethical principles and values. The development of the concepts of respect for persons, being of benefit and avoiding harm, truth-telling, and social responsibility will be traced across time, cultures, and professions. The purpose and role of ethics codes also will be described, demonstrating the influence of culture, politics, and historical events. In addition, the history of the initial development of modern-day codes of ethics for psychologists will be outlined.

Mark M. Leach (University of Louisville): Ethical Standards across Countries: Commonalities and Cultural Considerations
Abstract (Leach): As the profession of psychology continues to gain greater acceptance across the globe it is prudent for psychologists to evaluate common ethical components that comprise good ethical behaviors. Documents such as the EFPA Meta-Code and the Universal Declaration of Ethical Principles for Psychologists are the first attempts to develop common ethical principles across countries, acting as foundations from which to develop codes of ethics. Recently there have been empirical research efforts to identify common ethical standards across national codes of ethics. Identifying these standards shows common features of expected ethical practices across countries. The purpose of this presentation is to highlight these research efforts. Common standards found across ethics codes will be presented, along with trends across these codes. These research efforts can assist psychological associations with developing and refining their codes of ethics.




Convener: JEAN PETTIFOR, University of Calgary, Canada

In this round table discussion, we explore how principles and human values as enunciated in psychology’s professional codes of ethics and in declarations of human rights are supported by political strategies. Political strategies may be used to achieve virtuous objectives, or to achieve self-serving goals through the neglect and exploitation of others. Participants from five different continents will make short opening statements:  Alfred Allan (Australia), Saths Cooper (South Africa), Adnan Farah (Jordan), Janel Gauthier (Canada), José Maria Peiró (Spain).  The audience will have the opportunity to respond to these statements and to raise their own issues.  It is expected that they will provide examples of political strategies that serve a facilitative function as well as those that do not. Finally, how do we combine ethics and human rights with political strategies for building a better world? How can political strategies help to achieve universal goals? Virtue is goodness. Politics uses power to achieve goals. Ethics codes and human rights are intended to document what is virtuous behavior.




The purpose of this conversation hour is to informally explore how the principles and human values as enunciated in the professional codes of ethics and in the declarations of human rights are supported by political strategies. This discussion is expected to lead to the question of the universality of ethical principles and of human rights, and the appropriateness of the political strategies in advancing them.

Ethics is defined as a study of standards of conduct and moral judgment; as systems or moral codes of a particular person, religion, group or profession - in our context the profession of psychology.  

Human Rights have a long history, and are best known today as the United Nations Universal Declaration of Human Rights (1948). Its articles describe the rights that represent the dignity, freedom and equality of all human beings, and the obligation of signatory governments to maintain these rights for their citizens. 

Virtue is generally defined as general moral excellence, right action and thinking, goodness.

Politics has to do with power and is defined as having practical wisdom and diplomacy, OR, very differently, as crafty, unscrupulous, expedient, self- serving. Politics consists of strategies for achieving objectives.

Thus, political strategies and virtue may be complement each other when political strategies are used to achieve virtuous objectives such as serving the needs of others, especially the more vulnerable. Or, political strategies may be harmful if used to achieve self-serving goals through neglect or exploitation of others.

How would you respond to the following two statements?

1) Regrettably, the call for ethical principles to guide multicultural and international practice is offset by standards of conduct geared toward avoiding disciplinary action and litigation. […] Perhaps the most critical task involves the revision of ethics codes to ensure quality service that meets people’s needs while avoiding the creation of barriers to such services. (Michael Stevens, 2008)

2) Increasingly, the argument that the superpowers have a “moral duty” to enforce human rights is used in the same way as the doctrine of the “civilizing mission” once was used to justify colonization (Paul Treanor, 2004).

How do we combine virtue in ethics and human rights with political strategies in building a better world, and how do political strategies help to achieve universal goals?

Moderator/Convenor/Chair: Jean L. Pettifor, Ph.D.

Discussant(s) (in alphabetical order): Alfred Allan (Australia), Saths Cooper (South Africa), Adnan Farah (Jordan), Janel Gauthier (Canada), José Maria Peiró (Spain)


 Roundtable 2: Personal, professional and political: Applying human rights principles to research and practice in psychology

Convenor: Heather Gridley h.gridley@psychology.org.au 


This round table critically examines ways in which human rights principles be applied within psychology. Guiding questions for discussion include:

  • What lessons might be learned from accounts of the development of guidelines and policies that promote non-discriminatory and socially just practice in psychology?
  • How much scope exists within psychology for the application of feminist principles, values and ethics?
  • Is social activism really ‘beyond psychology’, or can our ethical codes, standards and practices encompass broader human rights considerations?

The presenters offer an overview of the development of Ethical Guidelines for psychological research and practice with women, and with Indigenous Australians, together with an analysis of the development and adoption by the Psychological Society of Ireland of a comprehensive policy on equality and inclusive practice. They then invite shared reflection on ethical decision-making in relation to gender equality and other dimensions of social justice.



(Convenor: Saths Cooper, South Africa)

Unlike other healing professions like medicine, psychology has tended to adopt a less visible public stance on human rights issues, particularly where it concerns vulnerable and underserved populations. Meanwhile, the international geo-political landscape has changed dramatically since 11 September 2001, impacting on the lives of people around the globe in myriad ways. Psychology too has not been unaffected. However, the media has often portrayed human rights issues relating to the ethical conduct of psychologists in a somewhat sensational manner. This has usually led to unfortunate negative conclusions being reached by the public about the science and practice of psychology. This symposium will explore some of the issues connecting ethics in psychology with basic human rights principles from the perspective of both the developed and developing worlds, and will suggest ways of mediating a more human rights based approach to the ethical conduct of psychologists.


Together in Serving Humankind in the 21st Century (Gauthier, J: Canada)

In 2008, the International Union of Psychological Science and the International Association of Applied Psychology adopted the Universal Declaration of Ethical Principles for Psychologists as “a common moral framework that guides and inspires psychologists worldwide toward the highest ethical ideals in their professional and scientific work”. This important historical event happened 60 years after United Nations proclaimed the Universal Declaration of Human Rights “as a common standard of achievement for all peoples and all nations”.  The purpose of my presentation will be three-fold: (a) to demonstrate how those universal declarations have a common purpose in building a better world; (b) how they differ in reflecting specific issues of their time; and (c) how they complement and strengthen each other in achieving the highest standards of respect and well-being of all peoples, and meeting the worldwide challenges for social justice, human rights and human life in the 21st century.


Human Rights and Professional Ethics for Psychologists (Behnke, S: USA)

This presentation will explore the relationship between ethics and human rights in three ways. The presentation will first address the relationship between human rights and professional ethics discourse by examining how human rights issues and the term "human rights" are incorporated into national psychological association codes of ethics. Next, the presentation will review the most recent amendments to the APA code, which bring the term "human rights" into the code's enforceable standards. Finally, the presentation will examine human rights activities that are currently the subject of APA interest and concrete action.


 Psychology and Ethics in ASEAN and SAARC countries (Nair, E: Singapore)

The teaching and practice of psychology in the ASEAN and SAARC countries is at varied developmental phases. Indonesia and India have a relatively longer history of psychology teaching in tertiary institutions. Singapore is comparatively new, though with a fast accelerating internationally peer-reviewed publication record. Other countries are in the early stages of building up their academic departments. ASEAN and SAARC are loose political associations based on geographical proximity. It is proposed that a regional grouping of national psychology associations and psychologists within these two groupings would be a coherent platform for collaboration to set standards for the teaching and practice of psychology, as well as facilitate a shared conceptual language and understanding of ethical practice for the discipline and the profession. This would set a bench-mark for dialogue with the developed world on the teaching and practice of psychology in Asian countries, with special reference to ethics in research initiatives.   


Psychological conduct under repression and democracy (Cooper, S: South Africa) 

At best, psychology in South Africa was apologetic during the repressive apartheid system that formally ended in the mid nineties. As the twentieth century enters its second decade, there are still remnants of the skewed patterns of psychological services and black entry into and representation within the profession that are reminiscent of past practices. The project to introduce a more human rights based ethical code of conduct for psychologists in South Africa, since the advent of a liberal constitutional democracy with a bill of rights, will be expatiated. On 4 August 2006 ‘Rules of conduct pertaining specifically to the profession of psychology’ were regulated into South African law, constituting one of the few codes of ethics in psychology to be enshrined in law.





This cutting edge workshop by two highly qualified psychologists challenges participants to address the ethical dilemmas that occur when supervisee, supervisor and client come from diverse cultures. These dilemmas arise in different contexts of power relationships, community expectations, and of practice, teaching, research and administration. The issues are global wherever psychology hopes to flourish, and cannot be limited to any one region or jurisdiction. Supervision is only beginning to be considered a specialty area of psychological practice. Multicultural competencies have received considerable attention, especially in terms of the mainstream professional person interacting with the minority client. The application of ethical guidelines to the practice of supervision internationally and globally is even more recent, and in terms of the ever increasing mobility of psychologists across national boundaries even more urgent. Participants in this workshop will have the opportunity to share their experiences and to discuss responses to dilemmas resulting from cultural differences. Life-like vignettes will demonstrate the issues under discussion. Small group exercises demonstrate how respect is shown in different cultures. Participants in group and plenary sessions will become aware of the complexities of multi-cultural relationships in competency-based supervision.


Workshop Objectives

Understand the universality of respect for diverse persons and peoples and how this is demonstrated in clinical supervision.

Understand the behavioral specificity of cultural applications of respect in the clinical supervision process.

Recognize approaches to ethical decision making in supervision when cultures appear to collide.

Increase self-understanding and personal limitations in supervision and therapy across cultures.

Increase commitment to humanitarian well-being world-wide.


Carol A. Falender, Ph.D. is an adjunct professor at Pepperdine University and clinical professor at the University of California, Los Angeles. She has a long career in teaching, research, clinical practice and supervision. She provides training and workshops nationally and internationally on competency- based clinical supervision. Her presentations for beginners and seasoned supervisors are carefully researched, comprehensive and practical. Her publications include Clinical Supervision: A Competency Based Approach (2004) and Casebook for Clinical Supervision: A Competency-Based Approach (2008), both co-authored with Edward Shafranske. Dr. Falender is also a practicing clinician and clinical supervisor who is sensitive to the ethical dilemmas in working across cultures. She has received many awards from psychological associations for her outstanding contributions.